段貞夙  老師 (Susan)

 
Think 聞思札記
 

* New!《寄生上流》裡,人類的普世課題
The Universal Issue of Human in “Parasite”
2019.7
* New!《玩具總動員4》的自我定義與覺醒
Self-Definition and Awakening in "Toy Story 4"
2019.7
* 「善待」童年 
Be Kind to Childhood 
2018.10
* 歐蘭朵FB粉絲專頁開張囉! 
Orland FB Fan Page Was Created! 
2018.7
* 但願無有遺憾
Wish There Is No Regret 
2018.7
* 宇宙之愛---能量的共振
The Love of Universe---The Energy Resonance 2018.4
* 南臺灣的一天 
The Day in the Southern Taiwan 
2017.7
* 找出潛意識裡的 Bug
Finding out the Bug in the Sub-consciousness 
2017.7
* 一直拍照、走路、發呆或頑皮的慢遊 
Taking Pictures, Walking, Dazing or Naughty in Tour 
2017.2
* 森林之旅
Forest, I Am Coming! 
2017.2
*  一年了---久違!好久沒放文章  2017.1
* 春天午後河濱 2016.4
* 上<史記>第一堂課後的隨想 2016.3
* 利他之行 2016.2
* 外境是內心的反射 2015.12.30
* 回到自由的靈魂 2015.7.14
* 河的前世今生 2015.7.14
* 靜止中的無限 2015.7.15
* 與大自然共存 2015.7.15
* 生活就像一粒粒葡萄
* 幻覺中的奮力---電影「啟動原始碼」「 全面啟動」
* 印度光影拼圖---電影「貧民百萬富翁」
* 動物書1---<重逢在世界的盡頭>
* 動物書2---<永遠的信天翁>
* 重返大海之謎---「水中蛟龍」展覽
* 藝術界裡的佛洛伊德---安迪沃荷作品展

 
 

New!《寄生上流》裡,人類的普世課題  
The Universal Issue of Human in “Parasite”

*普世共鳴的課題:貧富懸殊
The issue of universal resonance: The disparity between the rich and the poor


貧富差距,階級對立,窮人想要翻身,富人鄙視窮人,不論在古代還是現代,東方還是西方,是現實世界裡從不缺少的現象,自然也是戲劇藝術裡出現頻率很高的題材,拿它來說故事的電影創作者無法盡數,然而,要把如此高度普世性的題材,說到能拿下坎城影展的金棕櫚獎(坎城影展的官方競賽單元中,頒發給最佳影片的獎項),顯然更是不易。全世界各地每年有數不清的影展,其中最受人矚目並具代表性的就是法國坎城影展、德國柏林影展、義大利威尼斯影展。採取評審團制的坎城影展,因著每年評審團的組成不同,自然取向會有差別,一直以來,能在坎城影展榮摘寶冠,幾乎被視為藝術電影的最高榮耀。因此,這部獲得2019年第72屆金棕櫚獎的韓國電影《寄生上流》確實令我在觀影前,就帶著高度期待的心。

The gap between the rich and the poor, the class opposition, the poor want to turn over, the rich despise the poor, no matter when in ancient or modern, no matter where in the East or the West, it is a phenomenon that is never lacking in the real world, and naturally it is also a subject of high frequency in the field of drama. The film creators who took it to tell the story are countless, then it is obviously more difficult to get the Golden Palm Award of the Cannes Film Festival (the official competition unit of Cannes Film Festival, awarded to the best film) by telling such a theme of story. There are countless festivals every year around the world, the most attracted and representative of which are the Cannes Film Festival in France, the Berlin Film Festival in Germany, and the Venice Film Festival in Italy. The Cannes Film Festival, which adopts the jury system, has different orientations due to the composition of the jury each year. It is always the highest glory of art films to get awarded in the Cannes Film Festival. Therefore, this Korean film "Parasite", which won the 72nd Golden Palm Award in 2019, really made me look forward to it with great expectations.


如果藝術就是將現實世界的實體,以象徵或符號的方式精鍊地隱喻或呈現,以期能在有限的時間(影片的長度)或空間(螢幕框架)裡,傳達創作者的意欲,那麼《寄生上流》確實整體功力精湛。導演透過兩組角色,富人家、窮人家,透過他們的居住場景、生活方式、性格行為,以黑色幽默但又驚悚的劇情,隱喻牽引出一場社會貧富懸殊帶來的沉痛悲劇。

If art is to metaphorize or present the entities of the real world by symbols or signals, to convey the creators’ intentions in a limited range of time (length of the film) or space (screen frame), then "Parasite" is definitely superb. The main roles of the story is two groups, the rich family and the poor family, through their different living space, lifestyles, characters and behaviors, with a black humor but horror, the director metaphorize and unfold a miserable tragedy caused by the disparity between the rich and the poor.


*透過空間的對比隱喻
The contrast and metaphor though the space


電影一開場,鏡頭就帶領觀眾從窮人家的半地下室往窗外望出去,地面在他們的上頭,時常有人在他們窗前的角落撒尿,顯然這裡就是貧戶區。屋內,窮人家一家四口擠在狹小髒亂的空間裡,馬桶位居家裡最高位置(因為地勢及管線使然)、清潔隊員在路上噴灑驅蟲藥,窮人說也好,可以噴滅家裡的眾多蟲子,但緊接著他們四人就在驅蟲藥的噴霧中咳嗽難耐,這些都在逐步隱喻他們是一群被嫌惡,如蟲子般的低下,彷彿也該被消滅的人。特別是劇情後半,我們更是看到一場暴雨傾盆而下,他們回家的路是得走下很長的一段階梯,下坡地勢使得雨水污水灌入他們半地下的房子,當時污水從馬桶內湧出,窮人幾乎滅頂的狼狽與無助,這一切彷彿已經不只是上層社會的輕視所造成,就連上天也視之為蟲蟻草芥。而相對富人家,是位於山坡上,為廣大綠地庭院所包圍的獨棟高級別墅,寬敞明亮,設計感十足的空間,從地面車庫拾階而上,進入住家空間,有浴缸如寶座般立於浴室中,甚至還有當年名建築師建造的防空用地下室。這些場景空間上的強烈對比,顯然說著,貢獻這社會更多GDP的有錢人,才有資格享有這樣具有人性的舒適生活,就在窮人家被傾盆大雨滅頂之際,富人家孩子還可以安全開心地在庭院裡的帳篷露營玩耍。

At the beginning of the film, the camera led the audience to look out from the semi-basement of the poor family, and the outside ground was above their heads. Someone often pees at the corner in front of their window, it is obviously a community of the poor. Inside the house, the family of the poor is crowded in a small and messy space. The toilet is at the highest position of the house (because of the reason of the terrain and pipeline). When the cleaning staff sprays the insecticide on the road, the poor says it can clean our house filled with many parasites, then the four of them cough in the spray of insect repellent, which all metaphorizing that they are a group of people who are disliked, like parasite, should be eliminated. Especially in the second half of the story, we saw a torrential rain pouring down, the way they went home was to go down a long ladder. The downhill terrain caused rainwater to drain into their semi-underground house, even the dirty water gush out from the toilet, the poor men almost are drowned and helpless, it seems that the miserable situation is not just due to the contempt of the upper class, even the heaven also regarded it as a worm. Relatively, the rich family lives in a single villa on the hillside surrounded by a vast green courtyard. It is spacious and bright, with a sense of designing, from the ground garage upstairs to the house space, the bathtub like a throne in the bathroom, there is even a basement as refuge built by a famous architect (the pre-owner). The strong contrast in these scenes above clearly shows that rich people who contribute more GDP to this society are eligible to enjoy such a comfortable life with humanity, just when the poor are drowned in pouring rain, the child of the rich family can camping in the tent in their courtyard safely and happily.


*有錢真的能讓人變得善良嗎?
Could being rich really make people become kind?


兩組完全天壤之別的家庭,又是如何牽連在一起呢?這就是說故事的厲害了。因為窮人家兒子的朋友要出國,請兒子幫他去富人家當代理英文家教,教富人家的女兒,看起來這朋友不輕視這窮人朋友,因為他信任這朋友不會搶了他心儀的女孩。於是兒子以偽造大學證書進到富人家當了富人千金的英文家教,然後牽線讓女兒假裝國外學成的藝術治療師,來富人家當起小兒子的美術老師,繼而再牽線帶來爸爸當富人家的男主人的司機,最後媽媽再喬裝成高檔管家公司的員工,進到富人家中當起廚師兼管家協助女主人料理家務,他們假裝互不相識,但都來到富人家工作。

How are the two groups of completely different families connected together? It is the amazing point of the film. Because the friend of the poor sons wants to go abroad, asks the son to help him to take over the English tutor to teach the daughter of the rich family. It seems that this friend does not despise this poor friend because he trusts that this friend will not grab his favorite girl. So, the son entered the rich family with a fake university certificate and became an English tutor of the rich. Then he introduces his sister who pretends to be an art therapist from abroad to be the tutor of the son of the rich, and then the sister introduces her father to be the driver of the rich male owner, and the last step is the father introduces his wife to be the housekeeper, they all pretend they don’t know each other, but get jobs in the rich family.


片中經典的話就是:有錢人怎麼都那麼善良?如果我有錢,自然就會善良。 於是彷彿作者的想法是,善良、願意相信人,得在衣食飽足後才成立,所以窮人只剩下求生存的競爭心。(例如一對兒女設計陷害原來的司機與管家,使他們被富人解僱,然後讓父母能順利進來富人家擔任司機與管家。這樣的牽線之所以能成功,除了來自於窮人的欺騙,也來自於富人願意相信自己認同的熟人介紹。)但仔細推敲後,我們會發現,劇情裡的富人,與其說是願意信任人,其實不如說正是不信任外在世界,才封閉地、被動地選擇相信眼前的熟人。(對人的不信任以及沒有悲憫心,以至於輕易解雇在身旁工作很久的老管家。)所以,在我看來,導演在劇情的曲折細微處,打破了表面的貧富對立,呈現了在人性深處,無論是貧窮還是富有,都一樣「惡」,有錢並不會讓人性真的變善良。

The important words in the film are: Why could the rich people be so kind? If I have money, I will be kind too. It seems that the author's idea is that kindness and willingness to believe in people must be established after the food and clothing are full, so the poor only have the competitive heart for surviving. (For example, the son and daughter of the poor frame the original driver and housekeeper to be dismissed by the rich, and then let their parents smoothly enter the rich family as the driver and the housekeeper. The success of such a match is not only from the deception of the poor, but also from the introduction of acquaintances that the rich are willing to believe in their own identity.) However, through thinking carefully, we will find that the rich in the plot are just don’t trust the outside world, so they only depend upon their familiar persons. (The rich distrust people and have no mercy, so they can easily dismiss the original housekeeper who has been working for a long time.) So, in my opinion, the director broke the superficial contrast image between the rich and the poor in the twists and turns of the plot, presenting humanity deeply, not only the poor but also the rich, all are "evil", being rich doesn't make people really become kind.


所謂的利用,除了出現在老管家竟然將先生藏匿在連主人都不知道的地下室生活,利用管家職務之便將飲食等物帶去餵養先生。窮人家利用富人的信任,在富人家出遊之際,大肆在富人家中享受生活。然而,富人對窮人的利用則是被經濟體系裡的高薪合理化,富人甚至是在利用完了窮人的勞力價值後,私下嘲諷著他們的低賤,嫌棄他們身上的酸臭「味道」。

The so-called taking advantage of, in addition to appearing in the original housekeeper who hid her husband in the secret basement that even the owner never know. She takes advantage of the stewardship to bring food to her husband. The poor family take the advantage the rich’s trust to enjoy in the rich’s house while the rich are traveling. However, the rich’s taking advantage of the poor is rationalized by the high salary in the economic system. The rich even sneer at their low scorns after using the labor value of the poor and disgust the taste from the body of the poor.


*掩不去的味道,窮人的本質
The taste unable to be erased, the essence of the poor


味道,在此片中,扮演了關鍵。原來一家無業遊民,談吐粗鄙,行為粗莽,例如全家打零工,折披薩紙盒時,隨意亂折,造成一堆不良品,但到富人家工作時,一個個都可以裝成動作細膩、舉止談吐優雅有禮。窮人可以靠偽造證書、穿上像樣的衣服、上網查資料背起來當起家教,拿拉麵調味料煮成炸醬麵,讓人們在視覺、聽覺、味覺、感覺上,看自己是得體的人,但是身上的味道(長年住在與蟲子為伍的髒亂之處,用著劣等肥皂,一群人擠在地鐵車廂…),卻是怎麼樣也遮掩不掉的,也正是「味道」屢屢造成富人夫婦對他們的疑惑與嫌棄,這深深傷了窮人的自尊心,此外,窮人不斷想要越線,想以人性裡可以相通的感性情緒,拉近自己與富人的距離,但屢屢被警告不要越線,這些最後終於點燃了窮人的憤怒與反撲。味道的難以隱藏(即使把身體躲藏在桌子下,其味道仍被聞到)、越線的不可能,都在在說明窮人的本質,與窮人的無助,都是無法改變的。

The taste, in this film, plays the key-point. The unemployed, unruly talk, rough behavior, such as the whole family fold pizza box carelessly and randomly, resulting in a pile of defective products, but when working at the rich’s family, they can pretend elegant and courteous in talks and behaviors. The poor can rely on fake certificates, putting on decent clothes, researching the information on the Internet and working as an expert, and cooking noodles by using instant food seasonings, so that people can look them as ordinary persons from visual, hearing and feeling sides. But the taste of the body (long-term living in a mess with parasites, using inferior soap, a huddling in the subway car...) is difficult to be hidden, it is also the "taste" repeatedly caused the rich couple doubt and dislike the driver, which deeply hurts his self-esteem. In addition, the driver constantly wants to cross the invisible boundary to get closer to the rich man with the similar emotion of human nature, but frequently he is warned not to cross the boundary, these situations finally ignite the anger and counterattack of the poor. The difficulty of concealing the taste(even if they hide their bodies under the table, the taste is still smelled)and the impossibility of crossing the boundary explain that the essence and the helplessness of the poor are impossible to change.


*寄生蟲的希望在哪裡?
Where is the hope of the parasite?


那麼,在導演的故事意圖裡,當窮人的外在與內心都被貧窮淹沒之際,究竟有沒有機會翻身?大雨湍流急灌半地下住屋時,爸爸與兒子分別唯一拯救的是媽媽當年的運動獎杯,以及兒子的朋友送的能帶來財富的幸運石頭。這象徵著他們拼死也要緊握的,就是能向上層社會證明自己價值的過去,以及能使自己翻身的未來希望。然而最後,也正是這塊石頭成為兇器,帶來不可逆的傷害與不幸。彷彿導演最終說的是,窮人的希望是沒有可能實現的,甚至當這些想要翻身的內心盼望,混雜著人性裡的惡與貪婪,只會造成更大的災難。於是,一如影片最後,窮人兒子想像自己有一天賺了大錢,可以進到那個有錢人的房子,救出躲在富人家地下室的父親。然而,那就是個白日夢。

Then, in the director’s story intention, when the outside and inner of the poor are overwhelmed by poverty, is there any chance to turn over? When the pouring rain rushed through the semi-basement, the only things that the father and his son save are the sport trophy of the mother, and the lucky stone that the son’s friend sent to bring wealth. The trophy and the lucky stone symbolize that they must grasp the past that can prove their worth to the upper society, and the future hope that can turn themselves over. However, In the end of the film, it is the lucky stone that becomes a weapon, bringing irreversible damage and misfortune. It seems that the director finally expresses the hope of the poor is impossible to achieve, even when these inner hopes of wanting to turn over, mixed with the evil and greed in human nature, will only cause bigger disaster. So, as the film ends, the son of the poor imagine that he would make much money one day, and he enters the house to rescue the father who hides in the basement of the rich house. However, it is just a day-dream.


上層既得利益者是很難願意放棄自己的既得利益,而想要改變這樣的遊戲規則,正是從法國大革命到席捲上一個世紀共產主義之所以崛起的原因,至今它仍是人類的課題。其實,奉俊昊導演在2017年的《玉子》(“ Okja”。此片於2017年的第70屆坎城影展上參選金棕櫚獎。)已經表述了在貧富懸殊的世界裡,即使是善良的窮人想找到正義,也是沒有機會。如今,這同樣的創作意圖,此次在《寄生上流》中,可說是更加精鍊地、藝術地呈現。

The upper-class vested interests are hard to give up their vested interests, to change the rules of the game is the reason why from the French Revolution to the rise of communism, the revolutions appeared in the past centuries, and it is still the issue of the human. In fact, another film "Okja" of the Director Bong Joon Ho (봉준호) in 2017  ("Okja". This film was selected for the Golden Palm Award at the 70th Cannes Film Festival in 2017.) has expressed that in the world of disparity between the rich and the poor, even the poor are kind, they still have no chance to get justice. Now the same creative intention is shown more exquisitely and artistically in “Parasite”.


此外,本片韓文片名是《기생충》,意思為「寄生蟲」,其實也已經直接了當、雙關語地點出,窮人不但與寄生蟲同住為伍,也猶如對這個社會沒有貢獻,只是吸食著富人宿主身血的寄生蟲。以這樣的思想、價值為題材的電影作品,之所以可以跨越國界種族文化,引發坎城影展來自各國評審的共鳴與認同,而得到大獎,此題材的普世性確實無庸置疑。於是,觀影之後,除了讚歎導演,我思考的是,當貧富懸殊背後那一連串的人與人之間的不信任、欺騙利用,乃至鄙視惡意,如果已經普世地進入到人類的集體潛意識,那麼,我們人類的希望在哪裡呢?

In addition, the Korean film title is "기생충", which means "parasite", the name actually has directly pointed out that the poor are not only living with parasites, but also contributing nothing to this society as the parasites which just suck the blood of the rich host. The film work with such thoughts and values as its subject crossed the nation, ethnic and culture to trigger the resonance and recognition of jury of the Cannes Film Festival from various countries and won the grand prize, undoubtedly, the issue was universal. Therefore, after watching the movie, in addition to admiring the director, what I am thinking about is that when a series of distrusting, deceiving, and even despising generated from the disparity between the rich and the poor, if such mental situations have universally entered the collective subconscious of human beings, then, where is the hope of human beings?

 

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